Let's start with the arms.The geometry of the movement centered on each shoulder imposes that the arms rotation can intersect the circle drawn by Leonardo only in one point, whilst it is tangent to a regular circumference plotted by the navel – the true wraparound circumference, yellow in the scheme – only outside of that square, at about 65°. In addition to some minor asymmetries between right and left, both sides of the figure show a grotesque alteration to the length of the upper forearms, in order to reach the circle; and this without yet taking into account the rotation of the shoulders inward by raising the arms, which in turn reduces their extension.
Should we believe that Leonardo did not realize it, or rather that he did it on purpose because of the need to satisfy the circle he designed?
Moreover, I began to wonder why the arms' extent should be restrained inside the square height;
do you do that when you raise your arms?
or rather won't you manifest your 'height'?
Vitruvius could not have recommended such a solution.